Welcome to Herbarium JCB


The Center for Ecological Sciences (CES), Indian Institute of Science houses a herbarium of a fairly large number of specimens of native and naturalized plants collected by many taxonomists and researchers from India and abroad. This herbarium is recognized internationally by the acronym ‘JCB’. The collection consists of more than 14,000 specimens, from Vascular plants to Lichens. The collection is richest in plants from the State of Karnataka with holdings from the adjoining states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala as well. Another significant collection is, several hundred specimens from the forests of Western Ghats, an area not well represented in most South Indian Herbaria. Specific groups represented well in the Herbarium include Cyperaceae, Fabaceae, Orchidaceae, Poaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Ferns and allies, those reflecting the primary research interests of the past staff.

Over time, this herbarium has emerged as the only holding in the state that has collections from all over Karnataka state, well-preserved, correctly identified (determinations authenticated by specialists) with duplicates deposited in the herbaria of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, England, and the Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC.

Late Dr. Cecil J. Saldanha, a taxonomist and field botanist who was associated with the Centre for Ecological Sciences between 1983 and 1989 made useful contributions to the floristic studies in Karnataka state and brought out publications, ‘Flora of Hassan District’ and Flora of Karnataka Vols. I and II. Scientists at CES carried forward Dr. Saldanha’s work and made significant contributions to the herbarium that forms an important synergy to their research on basic and applied ecology, bio-diversity, plant-animal interactions, bio-energy studies and climate change.

Important Collections

Important collections include those of Drs. C. J. Saldanha, T.P. Ramamoorthy, K. N. Gandhi, Dan H. Nicolson, Frances M. Jarrett, Miss Shiela Hooper, Warren Douglas Stevens, B.C. Stone, R.E. Holttum, R. Raghavendra Rao, K. Sankara Rao, S. R. Ramesh, B. R. Ramesh, B. Gurudev Singh, S. B. Manohar, K. R. Keshavamurthy, K. P. Sreenath H. S. Suresh, Harish R. Bhat, Hansraj Negi (Lichens from Nandadevi Biosphere Reserve).

Recent collection includes those from different locations of the Eastern Ghats (K.Sankara Rao, Arun Singh R, K. R. K. Swamy, T.Pullaiah, Navendu Page and Siddharthan. S.); Duplicates of some specimens donated by Department of Botany, S.K.University, Anantapur.

Mission Statement

To create a knowledge-base on the regional flora to help acheive the goals of species conservation and habitat preservation.

Herbarium Location

Room 261, I Floor,Centre for Ecological Sciences-Old building, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012. Phone : +91 80 22932786 Extn. 26, Telephone: (080)23600382, 2293102, Fax: (080) 23602280

Herbarium Usage Policies

  • The Herbarium is available for use (consultation) by qualified individuals. Plant identification service is provided to individuals, agencies and companies.
  • Facilities are open for systematic research (e.g. monographic, floristic, revisionary studies) by individuals associated with other universities and research institutions on a reciprocal basis.
  • Researchers conducting projects specifically related to plant systematics are encouraged to consult the collections. Initially, such researchers must contact the Herbarium in-charge for permission to use the collections.
  • Standard and common-sense care for the specimens must be maintained at all times, including but not limited to the following:
    • persons working with collections are expected to fully understand its organization
    • specimens must be properly re-filed
    • if there is any ambiguity about the positioning of material, this should be re-filed by herbarium personnel
    • sheets are to be handled with care; they are not to be turned face-down, bent, broken, or torn
    • under no circumstances is material to be removed from a specimen; permission is required for dissection of plant parts
    • loose plant pieces known to have detached from a sheet are to be placed in the associated fragment packet if the sheet has no fragment packet or is otherwise in need of repair, it should be brought to the attention of herbarium personnel
    • evidence of insect damage is to be reported at once
    • Investigators are encouraged to properly annotate the specimens. Annotations in permanent ink or typewritten, should be made on labels of approximately 2.5 * 10 cm, and should bear, at least, the accepted name of the taxon, the name of the investigator and the date of identification.
  • Individuals not doing specific research work in plant taxonomy and wishing to take information from herbarium specimens will be allowed to do so on a limited basis, under supervision and by appointment, the herbarium reserves the right to charge fees for this service.
  • Various companies or agencies and individuals not part of the herbarium and not involved in systematic research will be asked to donate a usage fee. Use of the herbarium is by prior arrangement only and is restricted to normal working hours.
  • Researchers intending to use the herbarium for research are encouraged to include the use of the herbarium in research grant proposals.
  • Lastly, herbarium specimens are not to be removed from the premises without proper loan authorization and forms (loans are not made to individuals).

Working Hours

The Herbarium is open Monday through Friday from 9.30 am to 5.30 pm, except for holidays and subject to staff availability.

Herbarium Staff

K. Sankara Rao (In-Charge, Herbarium), Arun Singh R. & K.R.K. Swamy
Research Team: K. Sankara Rao, A.N.Sringeswara, Deepak Kumar, Arun Singh R, Imran Baig, Ravali R.M.V, Navendu Page, Sasidhara Kaimal & K. Gopalakrishna Bhat.
Database Administrators: Janardhanan Pillai and Kaushik Subramaniam.
Volunteers: Harish R.Bhat, Mahua Ghara, Vikram Chandra, Sriya Bhaskar, Neha Reddy, Pallavi K. T.


  • Fr. Francis Serrao SJ (Provincial- Bangalore Jesuit Educational Society) for according permission to reproduce Fr. Cecil J.Saldanha's Floras.
  • Fr. Leo D’Souza SJ (former Principal and Rector of St. Aloysius College, Mangalore) for his encouragement.
  • Dr. T.Pullaiah, (Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Anantapur) for according permission to reproduce data from his Floras.
  • Dr. R. Raghavendra Rao (Honorary INSA Scientist, Bangalore) for according permission to reproduce data from his Floras.
  • Dr. M. Sanjappa (former Director, Botanical Survey of India) for validating identification of Legumes.
  • Dr. Christopher Roy Fraser-Jenkins, Pteridologist, Kathmandu for validating identification of Ferns.
  • Dr. T.M.Ramakrishna (Asclepiadaceae and Periplocaceae of Karnataka) for according permission to reproduce data from his Floras.
  • Prof. Sharat Chandra, Director, Center for Human Genetics, Bangalore for his encouragement.
  • Mr. Yashwant G Kanade, Mr. K. Venkatesulu, Ms. Revarani and Ms. Padmavathi of Biological Sciences Library, IISc for help with books and reference materials.
  • Floras and Monographs Referred:
    • Saldanha, C. J. and Nicolson, D. H., Flora of Hassan District, Karnataka, India, Amarind Publishing Co Pvt Ltd, New Delhi and C. J. Saldanha, 1976 .
    • Saldanha, C. J., Flora of Karnataka, Oxford and IBH Publishing Co, New Delhi, 1984, vol. 1 .
    • Saldanha, C. J., Flora of Karnataka, Oxford and IBH Publishing Co, New Delhi, 1996, vol. 2 .
    • Gamble, J. S., Flora of the Presidency of Madras, West, Newman and Adlard, London, 1915–34, vols 1–3 .
    • Sharma, B. D., Singh, N. P., Raghavan, R. S. and Deshpande, U. R., Flora of Karnataka: Analysis, Botanical Survey of India, Kolkata, 1984 .
    • Ramaswamy, S. V. and Razi, B. A., Flora of Bangalore District, Prasaranga, University of Mysore, Mysore, 1973 .
    • Ramesh, S. R., Studies on the flora of Kolar District. Ph D thesis, University of Mysore, Mysore, 1990 .
    • Rao, R. R. and Razi, B. A., A Synoptic Flora of Mysore District: With an Appendix of Unani, Ayurvedic, and Trade Names of Drugs, Today & Tomorrow’s Printers and Publishers, 1981 .
    • Murthy, K. R. K. and Yoganarasimhan, S. N., Flora of Coorg (Kodagu), Karnataka, India with data on Medicinal Plants and Chemical Constituents, Vimsat Publishers, Bangalore, 1990 .
    • Gopalakrishna Bhat, K., Flora of Udupi, Indian Naturalist, Udupi, 2003 .
    • Seetharam, Y. N., Kotresha, K. and Uplaonkar, S. B., Flora of Gulbarga District, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga, 2000 .
    • Manjunath, B. K., Krishna, V. and Pullaiah, T., Flora of Davanagere District, Regency Publications, New Delhi .
    • Ramaswamy, S. N., Radhakrishna Rao, M. and Arekal, G. D., Flora of Shimoga District, Karnataka, Prasaranga, University of Mysore, Mysore, 2001 .
    • Singh, N. P., Flora of Eastern Karnataka, Mittal Publications, New Delhi, 1988, vols 1–2 .
    • Gowda, B. K., Vanaspathi Kosha – Plant Wealth of Sringeri, Kal-patharu Research Academy, Bangalore, 2004 .
    • Yoganarasimhan, S. N., Subramanyam and Razi, B. A., Flora of Chikmagalur District, International Book Distributors, Dehra Dun, 1982 .
    • Bhat, K. G. and Nagendran, C. R., Sedges and Grasses: Dakshina Kannada and Udupi Districts, Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun, 2001 .
    • Rajagopal, P.K. & Bhat, K.G. Pteridophytes of Karnataka State, India. Vinayaka Prakashana Publishers, 2016.
    • Fraser-Jenkins, Taxonomic revision of Indian Subcontinental Pteridophytes, Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun, 2008

Photo Credits

K. Sankara Rao, Navendu Page, Dinesh Valke, Arun Singh R, Imran Baig, B.V.Gundappa, A.N.Sringeswara, Shantanu Pramod Shukla, K.G.Bhat, Aung Si, Anurag N. Sharma, Yathiraj, Harish R.Bhat, Rajasri Ray, Siddharthan, Rajesh Tandon, Sumesh Dudani, Shaista Ahmad, H.S Dattaraja, Vikram Chandra, Sivan V.V, Vaishali Kulkarni, N. Arun Kumar, G.R.Rao and R.K. Mission Team.