Frequently Asked Questions

The arrangement of angiosperms followed is as proposed by A. Cronquist in ‘The Evolution and classification of flowering Plants-1968.’
Classification of ferns is as proposed by Maarten J.M. Christenhusz, Xian-chun Zhang & Herald Schneider (2011). Linear Sequence of Extant Families and Genera of Lycophytes and Ferns. Phytotaxa 19: 7-54.

The database is stored in MYSQL server ( and retrieved through PHP, a scripting language ( The website is hosted on the Linux operating system, including apache, a web server (; Plant taxonomic data are stored in the database, which allows rapid indexed searches to be carried out and the content to be generated dynamically. Binary (non-text) content such as high quality digital image files and documents requiring considerable storage are stored on the file system.

  • How to use the database?
    • Digital Herbarium JCB is developed and maintained by the Centre for Ecological Sciences (CES), Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bangalore. The homepage includes a write-up on Herbarium JCB, Herbarium Usage Policy, Frequently Asked Questions, Mission statement, Members, Important Visitors, News and Contact details. The browsing menu includes Index A-Z; About Us; Habitats; Image Gallery and Feedback.
      'Index A-Z' displays drop-down lists of Species, Families, Plant Groups and Families (As per The Plant List). Alphabetically sorted Species and Family lists allow the users to browse by species and family name respectively.
      Taxonomic data on each species page includes Species name, Author citation, Family name, Accepted Name (The Plant List), Collection No., Endemism, Key Identification features, Habit, Phenology, Native, Comments, Conservation status, Distribution Locality, Literature. The species page further features thumbnails of detailed Description, Digitized herbarium specimen(s), Line drawing(s) and Field Image(s). A Comments widget provided on the species page allows the user to report corrections or provide feedback.
      The browsing menu 'About Us' provides information on IISc, CES and Karnataka.
      The browsing menu 'Feedback' allows the user to report suggestions and corrections.
      The database provides 'Basic' and 'Advanced Search' capabilities. Text entered in Basic search is searched in all fields of the herbarium database.
  • Do you wish to visit the Herbarium?
    • Visitors are welcome to the Herbarium. Further information can be obtained from the ‘Contact Us’.