Trema orientalis (L.) Blume

 
  • Family : ULMACEAE
    (Elm Family)
  • Family (Hindi name) : KHIRK FAMILY
  • Family (as per The Plant List) : CANNABACEAE
  • Basionym : Celtis orientalis L.
  • Synonym(s) : Sponia wightii Planch.
  • Species Name (as per The Plant List) : Trema orientalis (L.) Blume
  • Common name : Pigeon Wood, Oriental Nettle, Oriental trema, Gunpowder tree, Charcoal tree
  • Vernacular name : Kiruhale (Kannada); Ambaratthi, Taeliaamaram (Tamil); Jivani, Kharkas (Oria); Gio (Hindi); Budamuru, Chakkamanu, Godlanelli, Kondajonna, Kakamushti, Moralai (Telugu); Aamathali, Aarni, Amapotti, Amarathi, Ami, Javanthi, Omamaram, Pottama, Pottamaram, Ratthi, Thundinaru (Malayalam)
  • Habit : Tree
  • Habitat : Dry and moist deciduous forests, also in the plains
  • Comments / notes : Common in forests above 400m of deciduous to semi-evergreen forests. Also in ravines and in cleared places.
  • Flower, Fruit : January-October
  • Distribution :
    • Andhra Pradesh : Srikakulam district, Vishakapatnam district, Vizianagaram district, East Godavari district, West Godavari district, Krishna district, Guntur district, Prakasam district, Kurnool district, Nellore district, Kadapa district, Anantapur district, Chittoor district
    • Telangana : Khammam district, Nalgonda district, Mehboobnagar district
    • Karnataka : Bengaluru district, Ballari district, Chikkamagaluru district, Davanagare district, Hassan district, Kodagu (Coorg) district, Mysuru district, Shivamogga district, Udupi district, Uttara Kannada district
    • Kerala : All districts of Kerala
    • Maharashtra : Akola district
    • Odisha : Throughout
  • Native : Indo-Malaysia
  • World Distribution : India, Tropical Africa, SE. Asia through Malesia to Queensland, Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia
  • Conservation Status : Not Evaluated (NE)
  • Literature : J.L.Ellis, 1990- Flora of Nallamalais Vol. 2; H.O. Saxena & M. Brahmam, 1995- Flora of Orissa Vol. 3; R. S. Rao et al., 1986 - Flora of West Godavari District; R. S. Rao and S. H. Sreeramulu, 1986 - Flora of Srikakulam District; H. O. Saxena and M. Brahmam, 1989 - The Flora of Similipahar (Similipal), Orissa; Sudhakar Reddy, C et al., 2009. Tree Wealth of Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh, India; Sasidharan, N. 2011. Flowering plants of Kerala. DVD, V 2, KFRI.; Saldanha & Nicolson, 1976 – Flora of Hassan District; Cecil J. Saldanha, S. R. Ramesh (1984). Flora of Karnataka State vol. 1. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co, New Delhi; Gowda, 2004 - Sringeri; Ramaswamy & Razi, 1973 – Flora of Bangalore District; Keshava Murthy & Yoganarasimhan, 1990 – Flora of Coorg District; Gopalakrishna Bhat, 2003 – Flora of Udupi District; Manjunath et al., 2003 – Flora of Davanagere District; Gopalakrishna Bhat, 2014 - Flora of South Kanara
  • Citation : Sankara Rao, K., Raja K Swamy, Deepak Kumar, Arun Singh R. and K. Gopalakrishna Bhat (2019). Flora of Peninsular India. http://peninsula.ces.iisc.ac.in/plants.php?name=Trema orientalis. Downloaded on 4 July 2020.

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