Catunaregam spinosa (Thunb.) Tirveng.

 
  • Family : RUBIACEAE
    (MADDER or COFFEE FAMILY)
  • Family (as per The Plant List) : Rubiaceae
  • Basionym : Gardenia spinosa Thunb.
  • Synonym(s) : Randia spinosa (Thunb.) Poir.; Xeromphis spinosa (Thunb.) Keay; Randia dumetorum (Retz.) Lam.; Randia tomentosa Wight & Arn.
  • Species Name (as per The Plant List) : Catunaregam spinosa (Thunb.) Tirveng.
  • Common name : Emetic nut, Common Emetic nut, Mountain Pomegranate
  • Vernacular name : Madan, Mainphal, Manyol, Karhar (Hindi); Kare, Mangeri, Kaarekaayi-gida (Kannada); Madhukkarai, Maarivalam, Attadikarai, Perumadhukarai, Mathukkaarai, Maalankaarai, Marakkalam (Tamil); Manga (Telugu); Mohana, Salara, Pativa, Patteia, Kalaikanta (Oria); Madana phala (Sanskrit); Gila (Marathi); Kara, Karachulli, Karalikkaya, Kattunaranna, Malankkara (Malayalam)
  • Habit : Shrub
  • Habitat : Moist deciduous forests
  • Comments / notes : Common in dry forests and scrub. Wood is used for making walking sticks. Bark and fruits are medicinal. Fruits are edible after roasting.
  • Key identification features : A large spiny shrub; spines axillary. Leaves usually fascicled on short shoots, obovate, ovate or spathulate. Flowers solitary or 2-3 together at the ends of short shoots. Corolla at first white, afterwards beconing yellow. Disc annular or cushion-shaped. Ovary 2-celled with many axile ovules. Fruit is a many-seeded berry.
  • Flower, Fruit : Throughout the year
  • Collection Nos : HFP 2755, CJS 14398, KFP 7706, KFP 8741
  • Distribution :
    • Andhra Pradesh : Anantapur district, Chittoor district, Kadapa district, East Godavari district, Guntur district, Krishna district, Kurnool district, Nellore district, Prakasam district, Srikakulam district, Vishakapatnam district, Vizianagaram district, West Godavari district
    • Telangana : Nalgonda district, Khammam district, Mehboobnagar district
    • Karnataka : Kolar district, Bagalkot district, Bengaluru district, Ballari district, Belagavi district, Bidar district, Vijayapura (Bijapur) district, Chamarajanagar district, Chikkamagaluru district, Chikkaballapur district, Chitradurga district, Dakshina Kannada district, Davanagare district, Dharwad district, Gadag district, Kalaburagi (Gulbarga) district, Hassan district, Haveri district, Kodagu (Coorg) district, Kolar district, Koppal district, Mandya district, Mysuru district, Raichur district, Ramanagara district, Shivamogga district, Tumakuru district, Udupi district, Uttara Kannada district, Yadgir district
    • Kerala : Kasaragod district, Kannur district, Wayanad district, Kozhikode district, Malappuram district, Palakkad district, Thrissur district, Idukki district, Kottayam district, Pathanamthitta district, Kollam district
    • Maharashtra : Akola district
    • Odisha : Angul district, Balasore district, Bargarh district, Bolangir district, Boudh district, Cuttack district, Deogarh district, Dhenkanal district, Gajapati district, Ganjam district, Kalhandi district, Kandhamal district, Kendrapara district, Keonjhar district, Khurda district, Koraput district, Malkangiri district, Mayurbhanj district, Puri district, Rayagada district, Sambalpur district, Sundergarh district
    • Tamil Nadu : Coimbatore district, Dindigul district, Dharmapuri district, Kanchipuram (Changalpattu-CGP) district, Karur district, Krishnagiri district, Madurai district, Namakkal district, Pudukkottai district, Sivaganga district, Salem district, Tiruchirapalli district, Tiruvannamalai district, Villipuram district, Vellore district
  • Native : India
  • World Distribution : India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, East Tropical Africa, Malaysia, Java, Sumatra, S.China
  • Conservation Status : Not Evaluated (NE)
  • Literature : Saldanha & Nicolson, 1976 - Flora of Hassan district, Karnataka; Ramaswamy & Razi, 1973 - Flora of Bangalore district, Karnataka state; N.P.Singh, 1988- Flora of Eastern Karnataka; Gopalakrishna Bhat, 2014 - Flora of South Kanara; J.L.Ellis, 1990- Flora of Nallamalais Vol. 1; R. S. Rao et al., 1986 - Flora of West Godavari District; R. S. Rao and S. H. Sreeramulu, 1986 - Flora of Srikakulam District; H. O. Saxena and M. Brahmam, 1989 - The Flora of Similipahar (Similipal), Orissa; Matthew, K.M., Flora of Tamil Nadu Carnatic, Vol.3 (1). Diocesan Press, Madras. 1983; Sasidharan, N. 2011. Flowering plants of Kerala. DVD, V 2, KFRI; Kamble & Pradhan, 1988. Flora of Akola District, Maharashtra. Botanical Survey of India.
  • Citation : Sankara Rao, K., Raja K Swamy, Deepak Kumar, Arun Singh R. and K. Gopalakrishna Bhat (2019). Flora of Peninsular India. http://peninsula.ces.iisc.ac.in/plants.php?name=Catunaregam spinosa. Downloaded on 10 December 2019.

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