Excoecaria crenulata Wight

    (Spurge Family)
  • Family (Hindi name) : AMLA FAMILY (आँवला फैमिली)
  • Family (as per The APG System III) : EUPHORBIACEAE
  • Synonym(s) : Excoecaria robusta Hook.f.
  • Species Name (as per The Plant List) : Excoecaria oppositifolia var. crenulata (Wight) Chakrab. & M.Gangop.
  • Vernacular name : Paal maram (Tamil); Era (Malayalam)
  • Habit : Tree
  • Habitat : Evergreen and shola forests
  • Comments / notes : Occasional in wet-evergreen forests of upper ghats above 1000m. Exudes copious milky latex while blazed by locals. These are confined to Shola forests in South Indian hills.
  • Key identification features : Capsule pendulous, three lobed.
  • Flower, Fruit : December-June
  • Collection Nos : KFP 12283, CJS 16850
  • Distribution :
    • Karnataka : Chikkamagaluru district, Mysuru district, Uttara Kannada district, Hassan district, Kodagu (Coorg) district
    • Kerala : Kannur district, Malappuram district, Palakkad district, Idukki district, Thiruvananthapuram district
    • Tamil Nadu : Dharmapuri district, Vellore district, Tiruchirapalli district, Namakkal district
  • Native : India, Sri Lanka
  • World Distribution : India, Sri Lanka
  • Conservation Status : Not Evaluated (NE)
  • Literature : Saldanha & Nicolson, 1976 - Flora of Hassan district, Karnataka; Saldanha, C.J. (1996). Flora of Karnataka vol. 2. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co, New Delhi; Parthsarathy, N & Pragasan , A L 2009. Check List 5(3):542-569; Matthew, K.M., The Flora of Tamil Nadu Carnatic, Vol.3 (2). Diocesan Press, Madras. 1983; Sasidharan, N. 2011. Flowering plants of Kerala. DVD, V 2, KFRI.
  • Citation : Sankara Rao, K., Raja K Swamy, Deepak Kumar, Arun Singh R. and K. Gopalakrishna Bhat (2019). Flora of Peninsular India. http://peninsula.ces.iisc.ac.in/plants.php?name=Excoecaria crenulata. Downloaded on 30 November 2020.

Botanical Description

Herbarium Specimen(s)

Field Image(s)


All fields are required

Creative Commons License
Digital Flora of Peninsular India by Herbarium JCB is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at http://peninsula.ces.iisc.ernet.in.